A list of the research studies

What is fact?  What is fiction? 


With all the information available, it can be overwhelming to know what is the truth.   Here is a growing list of research related to autoimmunity, thyroid disease and general wellness.  This list is not extensive, but I include published research as I find it.  

If there is published research that are not listed here yet, please let me know and I’ll include it here. 

Thyroid Health

Food and the Immune System

Research Title: Evaluation of immunostimulatory effect of the arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea. L) in vitro and in vivo.

Summary:  The impact of arrowroot on the immune system.

Published: NCBI, published online 25 Oct 2011.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279578/ 

Juicing and Blending

Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices.

Summary:  In this study, the researchers took four fruits (apple, pear, persimmon and mandarin orange) and obtained the juices using household juicing techniques – blending and juicing.  The juices were compared for phytochemical content and ascorbic acid content.  The researchers found that juices that were blended had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds.  But the fruits that were juiced using a juicer (apple, pear, mandarin orange) had a “significantly higher” concentration of ascorbic acid.

In summary, the highest levels of ascorbic acid, total polyphenols and flavonoids were achieved in the various fruits as follows:

  • persimmon juice: blended
  • mandarin orange juice: blended
  • apple juice: juiced

Published: NCBI, 19 June 2014

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103735/

Effect of Cold-Pressed and Normal Centrifugal Juicing on Quality Attributes of Fresh Juices: Do Cold-Pressed Juices Harbor a Superior Nutritional Quality and Antioxidant Capacity?

Summary:  Does it matter if you juice your fresh produce using a high-speed/centrifugal juicer or a cold-pressed/masticating juicer?    This study juiced fruits using both juicing methods, and the researchers observed “no significant differences” in the juices in terms of the content of bio-active compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolic, and total carotenoid) and antioxidant capacity.  What does impact the bio-active compounds is the duration of storage under home-refrigerated storage.

Published: NIH, 18 June 2019

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31286079/


Antioxidant Activities of Fresh Grape Juices Prepared Using Various Household Processing Methods

Summary:  Does it matter if you juice your fresh produce using a high-speed/centrifugal juicer or a cold-pressed/masticating juicer?    This study juiced grapes using various household juicers and then compared the antioxidant activities. The study found that the antioxidant activities and “the quality of grape juices were significantly affected by the household juicing method used”.  The best option is a low-speed masticating juicer, followed by a blender, followed by a high-speed centrifugal juicer.

Published: NIH, 12 July 2017

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30263614/

Influence of Extraction Method on Quality and Functionality of Broccoli Juice

Summary:  Does it matter if you juice your fresh produce using a high-speed/centrifugal juicer or a cold-pressed/masticating juicer?    This study compared broccoli juice extracted by a cold-pressed masticating juicer, a high-speed centrifugal juicer and a blender.  The research found that the broccoli juice made by the cold-pressed masticating juicer contained the highest polyphenol and flavonoid contents.

Published: NIH, 18 June 2013

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24471122/


Health benefit of vegetable/fruit juice-based diet: Role of microbiome

Summary:  Does fruit & vegetable juices provide any specific health benefits, specifically to the gut microbiome?  This study looked at the changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet.  Twenty healthy adults consumed a vegetable/fruit juices for 3 days, followed by a 14-day customary diet.  In summary, the 3-day juice-based diet altered the intestinal microbiota associated with weight-loss, an increase in the vasodilator NO, and a decrease in lipid oxidation.

Published: PMC, Published online 19 May 2017

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5438379/

Effects and Mechanisms of Fruit and Vegetable Juices on Cardiovascular Diseases

Summary:  The juices from fruits and vegetables contain the polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables, even though the composition of juices are different from the edible portions of fruits and vegetables.  This review summarizes recent studies.  “The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health…”

Published: NIH, 4 Mar 2017

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28273863/


Vegetables and Sport Performance


Whole Beetroot Consumption Acutely Improves Running Performance

Summary:  In this double-blind crossover study, the impact of nitrate-rich beetroot on endurance athletes were studied. The researchers found that the consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot improved the running performance of the athletes (adults).  Nitrate ingestion in the form of vegetables is beneficial without the adverse health effects of non-vegetable sources.

Published: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, published online 28 March 2012.

Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2212267211019484

Acute Blood Pressure Lowering, Vasoprotective, and Antiplatelet Properties of Dietary Nitrate via Bioconversion to Nitrite

Summary:  In this study, healthy volunteers consumed a dietary nitrate load (500 ml beetroot juice) and their blood pressure was measured 3 hours later.  The study found that blood pressure was “substantially reduced”, supporting the recommendation of a vegetable-rich diet, and highlighted the potential of a “natural” low-cost approach for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Published: NIH, published online 4 February 2008

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18250365/

Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Improves Cycling Time Trial Performance

Summary:  In this randomised controlled trial, club-level competitive male cyclists were given 500 ml beetroot juice or a placebo.  The researchers found that those cyclists who consumed the beetroot juice had better cycling performance compared to the group who had the placebo.

Published: NIH, June 2011

Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21471821/


Beetroot Juice Supplementation Does Not Improve Performance of Elite 1500-m Runners

Summary:  In this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, the performance of elite distance runners were examined when given a dietary nitrate supplement or a placebo.  The study concluded that the beetroot supplementation did not reduce running V O2 or improve 1500 m time trial performance.

Published: NIH, Dec 2014